Analyses of responses to the survey questions show the following:
- 91.5% (192) of the cities do not have an adequate supply of face masks for their first responders (including police, fire, and EMTs) and medical personnel.
- 88.2% (186) do not have an adequate supply of personal protective equipment (PPE) other than face masks to protect these workers.
- 92.1% (186) do not have an adequate supply of test kits.
- 85% (164) do not have an adequate supply of ventilators for use by health facilities in their city or area.
- 62.4% (131) have not received emergency equipment or supplies from their State.
- Of those receiving help from their State, 84.6% (66) say it is not adequate to meet their needs.
For emergency equipment, analysis of these responses by city size found little variation from largest to smallest cities in the percentages of adequacy of supplies. While a somewhat higher percentage of larger cities reported receiving equipment and supplies from their State, cities reporting inadequacy of these supplies did not vary by size.
Across the survey cities able to provide estimates, needed are:
- 28.5 million face masks;
- 24.4 million PPE items;
- 7.9 million test kits; and
- 139,000 ventilators.
Virtually all of the survey respondents indicated that PPE items needed were for use by their first responders, including police, fire and emergency medical, followed by hospital and other health care personnel. But concerns about COVID-19 threats to personnel go well beyond first responders, and most also identified other categories of personnel for whom masks were needed. In general, these included personnel having direct contact with the public on a regular basis. Examples included city workers employed in public transit, public works, sanitation/solid waste, water/wastewater, code enforcement, building inspection/maintenance, community services (including contact with homeless persons), public housing, food distribution, corrections, elections, decontamination/cleanup, childcare, and many other areas.
While the survey focused on just four categories of equipment as a measure of cities’ readiness to respond to COVID-19, respondents were invited to identify in greater detail the equipment and supplies needed but not available in their areas. In addition to N95 and surgical masks, their responses included PPE items such as eye protection, gowns, aprons, gloves, shoe covers/booties, and Tyvek suits, as well as disinfectant sprays/wipes, hand sanitizer, digital/no-touch thermometers, portable hospital beds, portable showers, handwashing stations, anti-bacterial soap, bleach, food prep supplies, medical refuse bags, and replacement filters for filtering devices.
City examples of needed quantities specified for many of these items include:
- Dayton – 200,000 N-95 masks; 150,000 pairs gloves; 150,000 eye protectors; 15,000 P-100 PAPR filters; 15,000 coveralls; 100,000 digital thermometers; 175 hand sanitizers; 10,000 8-ounce, 5000 16-ounce disinfectant spray/cleaner; 15,000 tubs disinfectant wipes; 15,000 Tyvek suits; 150,000 face shields; 15,000 packages anti-bacterial soap; 1,200 gallon-jugs viral swabs; 60,000 pairs shoe covers; 40,000 head covers; 20,000 disposable aprons; 1,000 gallons bleach
- Toledo – 100,000 gowns; 200,000 pairs gloves; 10,000 temporal thermometers; 50,000 tubs disinfecting wipes; 50,000 face shields; 60,000 CAPR/PAPR filters; 50,000 bottles hand sanitizer
- Henderson – 40 cases hand sanitizer; 100 cases cleaning wipes; 50 thermometers; 100 respirators; 300 replacement filters
- Bridgeport – 50,000 sanitizing wipes; 100,000 pairs latex gloves; 1,500 P100 masks.
- Fairburn – 50,000 pairs plastic gloves; 50,000 protective suits; 50,000 thermometers; 50,000 hand sanitizers; 50,000 disinfectant wipes; 100,000 rolls toilet tissue; 100,000 boxes kleenex; 100,000 bottles over-the-counter fever reducers; 200,000 bottles water.
- Meriden – 20,000 pairs gloves; 500 thermometers
- Santa Barbara – For police and firefighter use alone: 4,000 N-95 masks, medical gowns, pairs of safety glasses
- Sugar Land – 3,000 pairs goggles; 3,000 pairs shoe covers
- Davie –100 face shields, surgical masks, goggles, gowns; minimum 5,000 packages equipment wipes, hand wipes; 1,000 canisters cleaning chemicals
- Detroit – 18,000 surgical masks
- Middletown – For its 93 police officers and 82 fire personnel: N95 masks, 200 thermometers; surgical masks and gowns; 400 oxygen delivery devices, especially bag-valve-mask devices to deliver resuscitation. The City noted that its supply of disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer spray will be gone in one week.
Supplies on Hand
Respondents who reported having an adequate supply of the emergency equipment or supplies targeted by the survey were asked whether their supply had been on hand or had to be obtained from other sources. The majority of the 40 cities responding to this question indicated that their supplies had been on hand. Many of these said that they have had to supplement their on-hand supplies through other sources or combinations of sources such as other local governments, government organizations, hospitals, and private vendors. Five of the cities said they expected their supplies on hand would quickly be depleted. Montgomery noted that it received a Strategic National Stockpile delivery of expired masks approved by the CDC/FDA; of these, 28 cases of 210 masks (5,880) were dry rotted.