A National Report on Brownfields Redevelopment, Volume II
By The U.S. Conference of Mayors
April 1999


Brownfields Main Page

Table of Contents

Dear Mayor

Quotes

Introduction

Executive Summary

Status of Problem

Potential Benefits

Other Findings

Survey Respondents

Key Findings

Descriptions

Map

Brownfields Task Force


DEAR MAYOR:

I am pleased to unveil our second annual brownfields report entitled, Recycling America’s Land: A National Report on Brownfields Redevelopment, Volume II. As you know, the issue of brownfields and their redevelopment has been a top priority for the nation’s mayors for many years, and we are continuing to work towards federal legislation and policies to speed our redevelopment efforts.

The problem of brownfields is pervasive throughout our country. Almost every city in the United States has some type of abandoned or vacant site whose redevelopment was impeded or is currently being impeded by the fear of environmental contamination and liability.

When many people think of brownfields, they think of it as only a problem in the older industrial regions of the Northeast or Midwest. But in Salt Lake City, we have a 650 acre brownfield site in an area known as Gateway, which was home to railroad tracks, maintenance facilities, heavy industry, salvage yards, manufacturing and warehouse units. In our fast-growing community, we can not afford to let these acres go to waste. Nor should we. Across from the Gateway area was another former brownfield site, which now is the home of the new arena for the Utah Jazz. The stadium has a seating capacity of 24,000, employs over 1,400 people, and generates approximately $1 million in annual tax revenue.

The success of the stadium project is but one example of what cities across America are doing with these former abandoned sites. But we still have a long way to go.

As President of the Conference of Mayors, I am pleased to continue the work of my predecessors, Fort Wayne Mayor Paul Helmke and Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley. Their leadership along with the Brownfields Task Force Co-Chairs has been instrumental in putting the issue of brownfields on the map with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Congress and the White House. We will continue to push forward on our brownfields agenda, to give local governments and businesses the tools necessary to cleanup and redevelop these sites. Providing Mayors with current information on brownfield redevelopment is part of our work, and we hope this second annual report is helpful to you and your community.

I wish to thank all of the cities that contributed to this report. The information provided is now included in the Conference of Mayors’ National Brownfields Database, a resource that can be accessed by all cities and can be used when we meet with the Administration and Congressional officials to discuss brownfields issues.

Please keep us informed as you continue to lead the way in your communities and let the Conference Staff know how they can be of assistance.

Sincerely,

[signature]

Deedee Corradini
Mayor of Salt Lake City
President

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QUOTES REGARDING BROWNFIELDS AND FARMLAND PRESERVATION

Creating Livable Communities

Brownfields redevelopment incorporates one of the nation’s most pressing environmental concerns: the loss of open space — farmlands and forests — brought about by our continuing patterns of urbanization. We recycle glass, paper and aluminum cans, but as a nation, we don’t fully recycle our land. This pattern of throwing away our land must change if we are to create more livable communities.

Paul Helmke
Mayor of Fort Wayne
Immediate Past President


Untapped Markets

I look at brownfields as unrealized opportunities for economic growth. Many of these sites are located in prime locations and if developed properly, tremendous profits can be generated. While Elizabeth is home to a variety of brownfield redevelopment sites including North America’s best performing IKEA, the Jersey Gardens Metro Mall is the project that is receiving national recognition. A former 170 acre municipal landfill that has been closed and unproductive since 1972, Jersey Gardens will open for business this October, creating an estimated 5,000 new permanent jobs, 1,700 temporary and construction jobs and $5 million per year in tax revenues. The Mall project significantly impacts Elizabeth and the region in that it demonstrates how job creation, environmental cleanup and natural habitat restoration can occur simultaneously, and for profit, in one of New Jersey’s oldest urban industrial areas. This is a winning combination for everyone.

J. Christian Bollwage
Mayor of Elizabeth
Co-Chair, Brownfields Task Force


Reusing Resources and Farmland Preservation

One means of preserving prime farmland and green space is the reuse or recycling of land that is unused or underutilized due to perceived or real contamination. One of the cornerstones for future economic growth in Cedar Rapids is the redevelopment of a 50 acre brownfield site located near our central business district and on the riverfront. The obstacles of redevelopment are many, and as these 50 acres sit idly eroding the neighborhoods that surround them, precious Iowa farmland and greenfield spaces are being developed every year. As local officials, we need the means to overcome barriers to redevelopment of brownfields sites so as to preserve our nation’s farmland and assist our central city neighborhoods in becoming viable once again.

Lee Clancey
Mayor of Cedar Rapids
Co-Chair, Brownfields Task Force


Investing In Existing Communities

In communities like mine and so many others throughout America, we can measure changes in the U.S. economy by the vast inventories of abandoned industrial properties and other brownfield sites. These once productive properties, which contributed so much to this country’s wealth, are well situated to take advantage of the substantial prior investment in infrastructure that serves these properties. Already my community and others are seeing the potential for reusing these properties and tapping the hidden value of extensive roads, streets and other utilities that are already in place to serve the next generation of business development.

Anthony Masiello
Mayor of Buffalo
Co-Chair, Brownfields Task Force


Neighborhood Revitalization and Job Creation

The impact of brownfields is not just on that one parcel of land but on the surrounding neighborhoods as well. These sites need to be cleaned up, redeveloped and put back into productive use. We need to make our neighborhoods healthy and vibrant where jobs are located in the communities where people live.

Harvey Johnson
Mayor of Jackson
Co-Chair, Brownfields Task Force


Moving People Back Into the Cities

Vacant warehouses as well as abandoned older homes have the potential of being brought back into productive use through residential and commercial development. One example of this is with Dayton’s Rehabarama project which successfully has renovated formerly abandoned and deteriorated houses into beautiful homes. The results are amazing — these neighborhoods have experienced a resurgence with people moving back into the city and into these neighborhoods.

Michael Turner
Mayor of Dayton
Co-Chair, Brownfields Task Force


What the Conference is Doing

Our second national report further documents the negative effects of the Superfund law on the nation's cities, as shown by the vast inventories of brownfields throughout America. At the same time, it shows that cities are partnering with counties and states to make these sites productive once again. What remains is to get the Federal Government behind the efforts of mayors and others by means of incentives and other policies that stimulate private sector investment. This report provides ample evidence for why federal policy-makers should act, and it also provides guidance on where such actions are most needed.

J. Thomas Cochran
Executive Director

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INTRODUCTION

The U.S. Conference of Mayors defines the term "brownfields" as an abandoned or underutilized property where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by either real or perceived environmental contamination. This description can apply to a wide variety of sites including but not limited to industrial properties, old gas stations, warehouses, or even residential buildings which could contain lead paint and asbestos. These sites are located in just about every community throughout the United States. They represent pockets of disinvestment, neglect and even missed opportunities. Many times these brownfield sites can be found in poorer communities and neighborhoods, areas that could use economic investment and job creation.

The existence of many brownfield sites can now be traced to the strict liability provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a federal law more commonly known as "Superfund." CERCLA was enacted in 1980 to stop the irresponsible discharge of pollutants to the environment by holding entities to very strict liability standards, making owners fully responsible for any and all costs to rid "Superfund-caliber" properties of contamination. This federal law, over time, has affected virtually all properties — including brownfields— by making owners of these sites potentially subject to liability even though they did not cause the contamination, and it drives many potential developers and businesses away from these brownfields as potential sites for investment. Instead, private and public parties have looked to "greenfields", pristine or undeveloped land resources, as the first choice for locations for new businesses and other development. As a result, our nation is consuming farmland and openspaces at an alarming rate, while leaving brownfields abandoned or underutilized in just about every community in the nation.

The purpose of this report is to build upon last year’s first national brownfields survey, by compiling new information from the nation’s cities on the status of brownfields and the impact these properties have on communities. The information in this report has been added to the Conference of Mayors National Brownfields Database to help track local efforts in redeveloping these properties. This resource will be updated regularly as more information becomes available.

This report is a compilation of data from 223* cities that responded to a Conference of Mayors’ questionnaire. Participating cities represent all parts of the United States including Bangor, ME, San Diego, CA, Bellingham, WA, and San Juan, PR. Additionally, it was determined that the problem of brownfields affects cities of every size, with survey respondents ranging in size from Oak Brook, IL with a population of 9,087 to New York City with a population of 7,380,906.

Cities completed all or part of the questionnaire based on their best available data. The questionnaire solicited information on the number of brownfields (subject to each city’s criteria) and acres of land affected, impediments to and potential benefits of redevelopment, state activities and regional partnerships.

The final portion of this report contains narrative descriptions of brownfield sites as well as information regarding redevelopment activities.

The U.S. Conference of Mayors wishes to thank everyone who participated in this report.

* It should be noted that 28 additional cities did respond to our brownfields questionnaire but indicated that, according to their definition, they had no brownfields. These cities were not included in this report since our purpose is to measure brownfield redevelopment activities. We wish to thank these cities for sending in their responses.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The second annual brownfields report once again demonstrates the pervasiveness of the brownfields problem throughout the United States, and documents the lost opportunities by failing to recycle these sites back into more productive uses. Brownfields are abandoned or underutilized property where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by either real or perceived environmental contamination.

Status of Problem

A total of 223 cities provided information regarding the brownfields in their communities, a substantial increase from last years’ 149 responses. In this years’ survey, 180 cities estimated that they had over 19,000 brownfields sites. This figure represents more than 178,000 acres of land, acreage that exceeds the total land area of Atlanta, Seattle and San Francisco.

This year’s report again found that brownfields are not just a "big city" problem; more than 50 percent of the survey responses came from cities with a population under 100,000. These cities alone reported nearly 3,000 brownfield sites, totaling more than 89,000 acres.

The cities again identified the major obstacles to the redevelopment of brownfield sites. Like the 1998 survey, the ‘lack of funds to cleanup these sites’ was the most frequently identified impediment, followed by ‘liability issues’ and the need for ‘environmental assessments’ to determine the extent of the contamination.

The survey also asked cities if they had brownfield sites that would require additional subsidies beyond cleanup funds and assessment monies. More than 75 percent of the survey respondents indicated that they would need additional help, such as infrastructure upgrades, financial assistance to demolish obsolete buildings and structures, tax incentives, and low interest loans.

Potential Benefits

Among the potential benefits cited most often were tax base growth, job creation, neighborhood revitalization, and environmental protection. Two-thirds of the survey respondents estimated that if their brownfields were redeveloped, their cities would realize additional tax revenues in the range of $955 million – $2.7 billion annually. In addition, 168 cities estimated that more than 675,000 jobs could potentially be created on former brownfield sites.

More than 170 cities said they could support additional people moving into their city without adding appreciably to their existing infrastructure. Of these, 115 respondents estimated that, collectively, they could support more than 3.4 million new people in their cities, a population that is nearly equal to the City of Los Angeles, our nation’s second largest city.

Other Findings

More than one-half of the respondents indicated that they now offered incentives to encourage brownfields redevelopment, through tax credits or abatements, infrastructure upgrades, low interest loans, job training, grants, cleanup funds, and tax increment financing.

The survey also found that states have increased their participation with cities on brownfield issues, with 51 percent of the cities indicating they had city-state partnerships, up from last year’s level of 33 percent. While only 16 percent of the cities reported that the state was working with them on the issue of urban sprawl, 27 percent of the respondents had formed a partnership with their county to deal with this issue.

The reviews are still mixed when it relates to cities ranking their State’s Voluntary Cleanup Program. For the 140 cities in states with such programs, 44 percent gave their state a "satisfactory" rating. The remaining respondents were about equally divided, with 28 percent giving their states an "excellent" or "very good" rating while 29 percent giving them either a "not very good" or "poor" rating.

Descriptions

The last section of this report contains descriptions of brownfields throughout the United States as well as redevelopment projects on these properties. These city status reports document the progress being made by cities. Finally, many cities credited the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and its Brownfields Pilot program in helping them address their brownfields problem.

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STATUS OF PROBLEM

Number of Sites and Estimated Acreage:

Cities were asked to estimate the number and acreage of brownfield sites, subject to each city’s criteria and best available data. It should be noted that several cities were unable to provide this data or only included certain types of brownfields such as former industrial sites. Therefore, the numbers represent only a portion of the problem.

  • 180 cities estimated that they had a total of 19,236 brownfield sites.
  • 176 cities estimated that brownfields consumed 178,376 acres of land.
  • 51 percent or 113 respondents were from cities with less than 100,000 people which accounted for 2,890 brownfield sites totaling more than 89,020 acres.

Impediments to Redevelopment:

Cities were asked to identify the impediments they encounter in redeveloping brownfield sites.

  • The most frequently identified impediment (204 cities or 91 percent) was the lack of cleanup funds.
  • The second and third most frequently identified impediments were liability issues (175 cities or 78 percent) and the need for environmental assessments of the properties (139 cities or 62 percent).
  • Other impediments that cities cited were: market conditions (110 cities or 49 percent); environmental regulations (105 cities or 47 percent); community concerns (99 cities or 44 percent); standards for cleanup (93 cities or 42 percent); neighborhood conditions (81 cities or 36 percent); inadequate infrastructure (70 cities or 31 percent); and insufficient time to develop the deal (59 cities or 26 percent)

Cities were then asked to rank the impediments they identified by assigning them numbers (1-5), with a number one ranking depicting the most significant impediment. The rankings were then assigned points (#1 = 5 points, #2 = 4 points and so on).

  • The lack of clean up funds was ranked by 187 cities (778 points) as one of their top five impediments, with nearly 45 percent (102 cities) selecting the lack of clean up funds as their number one impediment.
  • The next four highest ranked impediments were: liability issues (157 cities or 513 points); environmental assessments (120 cities or 375 points); market conditions (86 cities or 229 points); and environmental regulations (88 cities or 226 points).

Additional Resources Needed

170 cities or 76 percent of the total respondents said that their city had brownfield sites that would require additional subsidies besides cleanup and assessment monies in order to attract private investment.

The types of resources that were most often identified included: infrastructure upgrades, financial assistance to demolish obsolete buildings and structures, revolving loan funds, low interest loans, tax incentives, loan guarantees, job training, relocation money as well as money for land assembly and acquisition.

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POTENTIAL BENEFITS

The questionnaire asked cities to identify the four most important benefits to their city if their brownfields were redeveloped.

  • Increasing the city’s tax base was the most frequently cited benefit, with 195 cities or 87 percent selecting this response.
  • The other most frequently cited benefits were: job creation (180 respondents or 81 percent); neighborhood revitalization (170 cities or 76 percent); and environmental protection (118 cities or 53 percent).

Tax Revenues:

The survey asked for estimates of the potential local tax revenues that could be realized if brownfields were redeveloped. Estimates were provided for both conservative and optimistic scenarios.

  • 153 cities gave a lower-range or conservative estimate that potential tax revenues totaling $955 million annually could be generated in their cities through the redevelopment of brownfields.
  • 155 cities gave more optimistic estimates that place the total potential tax revenues at nearly $2.7 billion annually.

Jobs Created:

When asked to estimate the number of potential new jobs at these sites, 168 cities said that more than 675,000 jobs could potentially be created if their brownfields were redeveloped.

Population Capacity:

Cities were asked if their communities could support additional people without adding appreciably to their existing infrastructure — roads, water, sewer systems and utilities.

178 cities or 80 percent of the respondents said they could support additional people moving into their city given existing infrastructure capacities.

Of these 178 cities, 115 estimated that they could support a cumulative total of more than 3.4 million people, a capacity that surpasses the population growth of the United States for 16 months or nearly equivalent to the population of the City of Los Angeles, the nation’s second largest city.

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OTHER FINDINGS

Partnerships:

The questionnaire asked the cities whether a partnership had been formed with the county or the state to deal with the issues of brownfields redevelopment, urban sprawl, and open space or farmland preservation.

  • Brownfields redevelopment was the most frequently cited partnership with both the county and the state. In fact, 51 percent of the respondents (114 cities) indicated they had a city-state partnership to deal with the issue of brownfields. In working with counties, 30 percent (67 cities) indicated that they had established such a partnership.
  • Only 16 percent of the respondents (36 cities) said that they were working with their state to deal with the issue of urban sprawl while 61 cities (27 percent) indicated that they formed a partnership with their county.
  • On the issue of open space and farmland preservation, 58 cities (26 percent) were working with their states and 44 cities (20 percent) were working with their counties.

Local Incentives:

Cities were also asked to identify local or state incentives for brownfields redevelopment.

  • More than one-half of the respondents (121 cities or 54 percent) indicated that incentives were offered to encourage brownfields redevelopment.
  • These incentives include tax credits, tax abatements, infrastructure upgrades, low interest loans, loan guarantees, job training, cleanup funds, tax increment financing and grants for assessment and remediation.

State Activity:

Cities were asked to rate how active their state was in working with them on the issue of brownfields. Of the survey sample, 221 cities responded.

  • Only 53 cities (24 percent) gave their state a "very active" rating, with 128 cities (58 percent) indicating their state was "somewhat active".
  • 40 cities (18 percent) said their state was "inactive" on the issue of working with their city on brownfield issues.

Cities were then asked to rank the performance of their state’s Voluntary Cleanup Program (if their state had one) as it related to assisting the city in redeveloping brownfield sites. It should be noted that only 203 cities answered this question with 63 cities saying that the question was not applicable. Therefore, the 140 remaining responses were used as the base number.

  • Only 39 cities (28 percent) in total, gave their state an excellent (12 cities or 9 percent) or very good (27 cities or 19 percent) rating, while 61 cities (44 percent) gave their state a satisfactory rating.
  • Altogether, 40 cities (29 percent) gave their state a not very good (32 cities or 23 percent) or poor rating (8 cities or 6 percent).
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SURVEY RESPONDENTS

Name State Population
Akron OH 221,000
Alameda CA 78,300
Albany NY 104,828
Albuquerque NM 411,994
Alexandria LA 49,188
Alton IL 32,905
Anaheim CA 282,133
Antioch CA 80,000
Arvada CO 98,000
Atlanta GA 450,000
Attleboro MA 38,383
Austin TX 514,013
Bangor ME 33,181
Bartlett IL 31,628
Bayonne NJ 61,444
Baytown TX 69,619
Bellingham WA 52,179
Beloit WI 35,573
Bethlehem PA 71,428
Billings MT 93,000
Binghamton NY 53,008
Bloomington IN 61,000
Boston MA 547,725
Bridgeport CT 132,919
Brighton NY 34,790
Brookfield WI 35,184
Bryan TX 55,002
Buena Park CA 72,898
Buffalo NY 312,965
Burbank CA 100,000
Burlington VT 39,127
Butte MT 33,336
Cambridge MA 99,000
Canton OH 84,161
Carbondale IL 27,033
Cedar Falls IA 34,298
Cedar Rapids IA 113,438
Charleston SC 80,414
Charlotte NC 612,000
Chesapeake VA 187,204
Chicago IL 2,731,743
Cincinnati OH 358,170
Cleveland OH 492,901
Clifton

NJ

71,742
Colorado Springs CO 350,000
Colton CA 45,000
Columbus OH 635,913
Dallas TX 1,053,292
Danbury CT 67,000
Davenport IA 97,500
Dayton OH 178,540
Dearborn MI 98,675
Denver CO 493,559
Des Plaines IL 53,223
Detroit MI 1,000,272
Durham NC 143,439
East Lansing MI 50,677
East Point GA 35,000
Elizabeth NJ 110,004
Elkhart IN 43,627
Erie PA 108,398
Everett MA 35,701
Everett WA 86,000
Fairfield CA 90,000
Fayetteville AR 52,662
Flint MI 140,761
Fort Wayne IN 195,680
Fort Worth TX 470,650
Fort Myers FL 45,206
Gainesville FL 84,770
Galesburg IL 33,530
Galveston TX 59,070
Gardena CA 51,487
Garfield Heights OH 31,739
Gary IN 116,000
Glen Cove NY 24,113
Grand Prairie TX 108,908
Green Bay WI 102,708
Greenfield WI 35,340
Greenville MS 45,266
Hammond IN 84,236
Harrisburg PA 54,556
Henderson NV 122,339
Highland Park MI 19,649
Holyoke MA 46,000
Huntington Beach

CA

189,220
Indianapolis IN 752,279
Irvington NJ 65,000
Jackson MI 39,500
Jackson MS 193,097
Jacksonville FL 665,070
Jamestown NY 34,685
Jersey City NJ 228,537
Joplin MO 40,962
Kalamazoo MI 79,089
Kearney NJ 34,874
Kenner LA 72,033
Kettering OH 61,000
Knoxville TN 169,311
Kokomo IN 44,962
La Crosse WI 51,003
Lake Charles LA 77,141
Lakeland FL 70,000
Lancaster PA 57,200
Lansing MI 119,590
Las Vegas NV 376,906
Lawrence MA 70,207
Leavenworth KS 38,495
Lewiston ME 39,757
Lima OH 45,549
Lincoln NE 203,076
Livonia MI 105,099
Lynchburg VA 68,000
Lynn MA 90,000
Lynwood CA 61,945
Macon GA 150,000
Malden MA 53,884
Mansfield OH 53,000
Margate FL 42,985
McKeesport

PA

58,000
Medford MA 58,000
Memphis TN 614,289
Meridian MS 42,003
Miami FL 2,057,000
Minneapolis MN 354,590
Mishawaka IN 42,635
Moline IL 43,202
Montebello CA 59,564
Monterey Park CA 60,738
Mountain View CA 71,300
Murray UT 31,282
New Albany IN 38,000
New Bedford MA 99,922
New Haven CT 122,000
New Orleans LA 484,149
New York NY 7,380,906
Newark NJ 275,000
Newark CA 40,459
Newport News VA 180,000
Niagara Falls NY 61,840
Norfolk VA 241,426
Norristown PA 30,749
North Chicago IL 34,978
Norwalk CT 77,220
Norwich CT 38,010
Novi MI 32,998
Oak Brook IL 9,087
Ocala FL 42,045
Ogden UT 70,000
Oklahoma City OK 463,201
Omaha NE 358,209
Orland Park IL 44,519
Oxnard CA 145,863
Palatine IL 57,066
Park Ridge IL 36,175
Passaic NJ 58,041
Pawtucket RI 72,644
Philadelphia PA 1,524,249
Pittsfield MA 44,121
Plainfield NJ 46,567
Pomona CA 143,870
Pontiac MI 71,166
Portland OR 450,777
Portsmouth VA 103,464
Quincy MA 84,985
Rialto CA 72,388
Richmond CA 93,000
Richmond VA 201,108
Riverside CA 250,000
Rochester NY 24,727
Rockford IL 143,263
Rome NY 44,350
Salinas CA 123,329
Salt Lake City UT 171,478
San Antonio TX 1,067,816
San Bernardino CA 184,397
San Diego CA 1,197,000
San Juan PR 437,745
San Leandro CA 70,000
Santa Clara CA 100,000
Santa Clarita CA 123,676
Santa Fe NM 55,859
Savannah GA 150,000
Schenectady NY 65,566
Seattle WA 520,947
Seminole FL 9,600
Sheboygan WI 49,676
Sierra Vista AZ 38,870
Spartanburg SC 43,467
Spokane WA 197,044
Springfield MO 149,727
Springfield OH 70,487
St. Charles MO 54,555
Stamford CT 108,000
Stockton CA 222,633
Syracuse NY 159,895
Tacoma WA 184,500
Tallahassee FL 133,178
Taylor MI 70,811
Tempe AZ 85,281
Toledo OH 322,550
Troy MI 72,884
Tulsa OK 374,851
Tuscaloosa AL 80,000
University Heights OH 14,900
Upland CA 67,300
Utica NY 68,637
Waco TX 105,892
Walnut Creek CA 60,569
Washington DC 567,094
Waterbury CT 103,523
Waterloo IA 67,351
Watertown MA 32,189
Wauwatosa WI 49,366
West Valley UT 105,000
West Warwick RI 30,100
Wheeling WV 34,882
Wilmington NC 55,530
Winston-Salem NC 170,000
Woodbridge NJ 90,074
Wyoming MI 63,891
Yonkers NY 183,490
York PA 42,192
Yuma

AZ

60,457


KEY FINDINGS

City/State

Population

Estimated Number of Sites

Estimated Number of Acres

Estimated Annual Tax Revenue Gained (Conservative)

Estimated Annual Tax Revenue Gained (Optimistic)

Potential Number of Jobs Created

Akron,OH 221,000 100 1,000 $6,000,000 $12,000,000 6,000
Alameda, CA 78,300 43 2,950 * * 19,000
Albany, NY 104,828 10 30 $200,000 $500,000 50
Albuquerque, NM 411,994 20 100 $2,000,000 $10,000,000 *
Alexandria, LA 49,188 100 400 $1,000,000 $2,000,000 400
Alton, IL 32,905 60 200 $1,000,000 $2,000,000 1,000
Anaheim, CA 282,133 1 18 $150,000 $200,000 850
Antioch, CA 80,000 3 100 * * 100
Arvada, CO 98,000 1 20 $1,000,000 $3,000,000 1,500
Atlanta, GA 450,000 600 147 $1,500,000 $2,500,000 250
Attleboro, MA 38,383 57 635 $326,000 $326,000 714
Austin, TX 514,013 25 100 $5,000,000 $75,000,000 1,000
Bangor, ME 33,181 3 116 $250,000 $1,000,000 250
Bartlett, IL 31,628 1 10 $100,000 $300,000 *
Bayonne, NJ 61,444 9 300 * * *
Baytown, TX 69,619 3 8 * * *
Bellingham, WA 52,179 4 60 * * 300
Beloit, WI 35,573 4 20 $500,000 $1,000,000 100
Bethlehem, PA 71,428 5 2,000 $1,000,000 $5,000,000 25,000
Billings, MT 93,000 2 200 $100,000 $400,000 40
Binghamton, NY 53,008 2 7 $100,000 $200,000 150
Bloomington, IN 61,000 17 87 * * *
Boston, MA 547,725 175 400 $2,225,000 $3,000,000 25,000
Bridgeport, CT 132,919 * 200 $7,000,000 $9,000,000 5,000
Brighton, NY 34,790 3 20 $50,000 $100,000 130
Brookfield, WI 35,184 4 10 $20,000 $60,000 175
Bryan, TX 55,002 4 * * * *
Buffalo, NY 312,965 90 2,000 $5,000,000 $8,000,000 10,000
Burbank, CA 100,000 23 40 $25,000 $150,000 265
Butte, MT 33,336 7 1,100 $130,000 $180,000 300
Cambridge, MA 99,000 4 41 $7,300,000 $7,300,000 *
Canton, OH 84,161 8 300 $1,000,000 $5,000,000 3,200
Carbondale, IL 27,033 3 * $250,000 $500,000 500
Cedar Falls, IA 34,298 1 1 $37,000 $100,000 50
Cedar Rapids, IA 113,438 3 40 * * 175
Charleston, SC 80,414 100 1,000 $1,000,000 $5,000,000 5,000
Charlotte, NC 612,000 809 43,788 * * *
Chicago, IL 2,731,743 2,000 * $78,000,000 * 34,000
Cleveland, OH 492,901 350 6,000 $225,000,000 $500,000,000 100,000
Clifton, NJ 71,742 20 50 * * 500
Colorado Springs, CO 350,000 3 200 * * *
Colton, CA 45,000 * * $10,000 $100,000 6,000
Columbus, OH 635,913 20 120 $1,000,000 $4,000,000 600
Dallas, TX 1,053,292 * * $25,000,000 $52,000,000 32,670
Danbury, CT 67,000 5 10 * * 287
Davenport, IA 97,500 * * $500,000 $10,000,000 150
Dayton, OH 178,540 20 250 $1,200,000 $1,800,000 3,500
Dearborn, MI 98,675 20 200 $6,000,000 $10,000,000 1,500
Denver, CO 493,559 93 75 $500,000 $1,000,000 500
Des Plaines, IL 53,223 * * * * 250
Detroit, MI 1,000,272 650 2,000 $15,000,000 $50,000,000 10,000
Durham, NC 143,439 * * $325,000 $1,250,000 1,500
East Lansin, MI 50,677 2 15 $4,000 $6,000 4
East Point, GA 35,000 3 115 $3,200,000 $5,000,000 1,575
Elizabeth, NJ 110,004 56 825 $5,190,000 $10,400,000 12,000
Elkhart, IN 43,627 65 290 $900,000 $1,600,000 2,000
Erie, PA 108,398 5 65 $780,000 $850,000 975
Everett, MA 35,701 * * $2,000,000 $20,000,000 9,000
Everett, WA 86,000 5 300 $100,000 $1,000,000 1,000
Fayetteville, AR 52,662 1 6 $50,000 $100,000 35
Fort Wayne, IN 195,680 300 700 $1,000,000 $10,000,000 300
Fort Worth, TX 470,650 100 1,000 1,750 * *
Fort Myers, FL 45,206 440 65,327 $1,000,000 $2,000,000 150
Gainesville, FL 84,770 30 400 $300,000 $600,000 400
Galesburg, IL 33,530 15 10 $50,000 $500,000 50
Galveston, TX 59,070 25 25 * * *
Gardena, CA 51,487 4 10 * * 775
Garfield Heights, OH 31,739 20 450 $5,000,000 $10,000,000 2,500
Gary, IN 116,000 120 2,500 $20,000,000 $30,000,000 33,146
Glen Cove, NY 24,113 30 146 $3,000,000 $4,500,000 1,700
Grand Prairie, TX 108,908 25 75 $350,000 $500,000 100
Green Bay, WI 102,708 186 22 $30,000,000 $50,000,000 *
Greenfield, WI 35,340 3 40 $650,000 $800,000 *
Greenville, MS 45,266 10 500 $250,000 $500,000 250
Hammond, IN 84,236 15 1,000 $500,000 $1,000,000 1,000
Harrisburg, PA 54,556 10 150 $800,000 $3,000,000 1,000
Henderson, NY 122,339 2 1,345 $3,500,000 $7,000,000 15,425
Highland Park, MI 19,649 20 250 $400,000 $1,000,000 5,000
Holyoke, MA 46,000 3 5 $150,000 $150,000 103
Indianapolis, IN 752,279 105 200 $1,400,000 $2,000,000 5,800
Irvington, NJ 65,000 100 * * * *
Jackson, MI 39,500 6 75 $600,000 $1,000,000 350
Jacksonville, FL 665,070 200 * * * *
Jersey City, NJ 228,537 94 2,000 $50,000,000 $500,000,000 10,000
Joplin, MO 40,962 * * * * *
Kalamazoo, MI 79,089 100 500 $14,300,000 $21,400,000 3,000
Kearny, NJ 34,874 12 500 $2,000,000 $4,000,000 1,500
Kettering, OH 61,000 1 2 $20,000 $50,000 40
Knoxville, TN 169,311 11 1,000 $350,000 $2,250,000 1,800
Kokomo, IN 44,962 17 150 * * *
La Crosse, WI 51,003 25 100 $10,000,000 $20,000,000 100
Lake Charles, LA 77,141 * * $600,000 $2,000,000 200
Lakeland, FL 70,000 5 10 * * 300
Lancaster, PA 57,200 10 90 $1,950,000 $2,400,000 1,400
Lansing, MI 119,590 20 100 $1,500,000 $5,000,000 1,000
Las Vegas, NV 376,906 30 90 $500,000 $1,200,000 320
Lawrence, MA 70,207 * * $500,000 $1,500,000 500
Leavenworth, KS 38,495 1 20 $20,000 $40,000 30
Lewiston, ME 39,757 10 75 $1,000,000 $2,000,000 5,000
Lima, OH 45,549 210 200 $250,000 $400,000 4,000
Lincoln, NE 203,076 15 10 * * *
Livonia, MI 105,099 2 100 $150,000 $850,000 200
Lynchburg, VA 68,000 * * * * *
Lynn, MA 90,000 21 200 $450,000 $750,000 2,500
Lynwood, CA 61,945 4 38 $750,000 $1,200,000 700
Macon, GA 150,000 7 100 $1,500,000 $10,000,000 991
Malden, MA 53,884 * * $1,130,000 $6,000,000 7,500
Mansfield, OH 53,000 4 30 $10,000,000 $30,000,000 500
McKeesport, PA 58,000 13 170 $500,000 $1,500,000 8,000
Medford, MA 58,000 5 40 $1,000,000 $2,000,000 *
Memphis, TE 614,289 25 750 $6,000,000 $12,000,000 10,000
Miami, FL 2,057,000 350 300 $150,000 $2,000,000 5,500
Minneapolis, MN 354,590 185 1,000 $1,000,000 $20,000,000 500
Mishawaka, IN 42,635 1 43 $500,000 $2,000,000 200
Moline, IL 43,202 2 10 $400,000 $1,500,000 2,000
Montebello, CA 59,564 1 100 $50,000 $112,700 2,900
Monterey Park, CA 60,738 4 50 $1,000,000 $1,800,000 1,400
Mountain View, CA 71,300 2 15 $1,000,000 $2,000,000 1,600
Murray, UT 31,282 * 140 $250,000 $400,000 1,300
New Albany, IN 38,000 25 75 $100,000 $750,000 500
New Bedford, MA 99,922 9 130 $152,244 $3,298,330 2,000
New Haven, CT 122,000 14 124 $1,500,000 $3,000,000 1,000
New Orleans, LA 484,149 250 2,500 $5,000,000 $20,000,000 7,500
New York, NY 7,380,906 6,000 3,000 * * *
Newark, NJ 275,000 25 250 $1,000,000 $10,000,000 2,500
Newark, CA 40,459 1 100 $500,000 $2,000,000 8,000
Newport News, VA 180,000 6 500 $500,000 $5,000,000 2,500
Niagara Falls, NY 61,840 17 386 $1,000,000 $1,500,000 3,000
Norristown, PA 30,749 2 8 $12,510 $20,000 *
North Chicago, IL 34,978 14 85 * * 1,100
Norwalk, CT 77,220 20 40 $500,000 $4,000,000
Norwich, CT 38,010 12 * $250,000 $2,000,000 650
Oak Brook, IL 9,087 1 1 $10,000 $50,000 5
Ocala, FL 42,045 50 50 * * 100
Ogden, UT 70,000 3 100 * * 50
Oklahoma City, OK 463,201 88 440 $500,000 $3,000,000 2,500
Omaha, NE 358,209 5 100 $100,000,000 $250,000,000 3,000
Orland Park, IL 44,519 5 10 $50,000 $200,000 50
Oxnard, CA 145,863 * * $100,000 $150,000 30
Palatine, IL 57,066 4 2 $100,000 $300,000 35
Park Ridge, IL 36,175 15 20 * * *
Passaic, NJ 58,041 6 25 $500,000 $2,000,000 2,000
Pawtucket, RI 72,644 3 12 $150,000 $300,000 40
Philadelphia, PA 1,524,249 2,000 2,500 $50,000,000 $200,000,000 10,000
Pittsfield, MA 44,121 50 240 $500,000 $1,500,000 3,000
Plainfield, NJ 46,567 30 75 $5,500,000 $7,500,000 1,500
Pomona, CA 143,870 15 50 $75,000 $250,000 200
Pontiac, MI 71,166 17 500 * *
Portland, OR 450,777 500 500 $100,000,000 $100,000,000 10,000
Quincy, MA 84,985 2 240 $200,000 $400,000 1,500
Rialto, CA 72,388 * * * * *
Richmond, CA 93,000 250 1,200 * * *
Richmond, VA 201,108 20 100 $500,000 $1,000,000 2,500
Riverside, CA 250,000 1 10 $500,000 $1,000,000 200
Rochester, NY 24,727 300 750 $1,600,000 $16,000,000 2,500
Rockford, IL 143,263 23 550 $50,000,000 $150,000,000 7,500
Rome, NY 44,350 4 250 $1,000,000 $3,000,000 8,000
Salt Lake City, UT 171,478 * * $1,000,000 $3,000,000 10,000
San Diego, CA 1,197,000 7 3 * * 50
San Juan, PR 437,745 5 40 $500,000 $2,000,000 1,000
San Leandro, CA 70,000 10 1,280 $500,000 $2,000,000 500
Santa Clarita, CA 123,676 2 1,113 * * 500
Santa Fe, NM 55,859 7 100 $500,000 $800,000 300
Savannah, GA 150,000 3 30 $90,000 $180,000 120
Schenectady, NY 65,566 * * $300,000 $500,000 700
Seattle, WA 520,947 * 5,500 $46,000,000 $65,000,000 60,000
Sheboygan,WI 49,676 20 125 $150,000 $400,000 500
Sierra Vista, AZ 38,870 6 20 $50,000 $250,000 25
Spartanburg, SC 43,467 24 75 * * *
Spokane, WA 197,044 2 * * * *
Springfield, MO 149,727 110 250 $200,000 $500,000 1,000
Springfield, OH 70,487 * 300 * * *
St. Charles, MO 54,555 1 1 $10,000 5
Stamford, CT 108,000 * 250 * * *
Stockton, CA 222,633 50 150 $20,000 $200,000 170
Syracuse, NY 159,895 30 50 $5,000,000 $6,000,000 1,000
Tacoma, WA 184,500 3 1,200 * * 5,000
Tallahassee, FL 133,178 76 270 $750,000 $950,000 2,300
Taylor, MI 70,811 37 100 $1,000,000 $5,000,000 300
Tempe, AZ 85,281 5 30 * * 400
Toledo, OH 322,550 30 50 * * *
Troy, MI 72,884 10 150 $1,000,000 $2,300,000 1,500
Tulsa, OK 374,851 25 188 $100,000 $1,000,000 750
Tuscaloosa, AL 80,000 3 8 * * 232
University Heights, OH 14,900 20 10 $200,000 $200,000 100
Utica, NY 68,637 15 * * * 100
Waco, TX 105,892 5 6 $300,000 $500,000 125
Walnut Creek, CA 60,569 10 6 $1,000,000 $1,500,000 200
Washington, DC 567,094 23 17 * * *
Waterbury, CT 103,523 40 250 $40,000,000 $50,000,000 10,000
Waterloo, IA 67,351 15 25 * * *
Wauwatosa, WI 49,366 35 12 $3,000,000 $7,500,000 90
West Valley, UT 105,000 6 100 $300,000 $1,000,000 1,000
West Warwick, RI 30,100 4 25 $100,000 $200,000 250
Wheeling, WV 34,882 15 60 * * 2,000
Woodbridge, NJ 90,074 7 800 $15,000,000 $50,000,000 7,500
Yonkers, NY 183,490 175 475 $2,000,000 $5,000,000 10,000
York, PA 42,192 15 150 $500,000 $1,500,000 500
Yuma , AZ 60,457 5 200 $300,000 $3,000,000 500